###### Nominal GDP, Real GDP and GDP Deflator

It is economically healthy to exclude the effect of general price changes when... **Read More**

-LOS a: interpret interest rates as required rates of return, discount rates, or opportunity costs

-LOS f. demonstrate the use of a time line in modeling and solving time value of money problems

-LOS a: identify and compare data types

-LOS b: describe how data are organized for quantitative analysis

-LOS c: interpret frequency and related distributions

-LOS d: interpret a contingency table

-LOS e: describe ways that data may be visualized and evaluate the uses of specific visualizations.

-LOS f: describe how to select among visualization types.

-LOS g: calculate and interpret measures of central tendency

**–**LOS h: evaluate alternative definitions of mean to address an investment problem

-LOS i: calculate quantiles and interpret related visualizations

-LOS j: calculate and interpret measures of dispersion

-LOS k: calculate and interpret target downside deviation

-LOS n: interpret correlation between two variables

–LOS a: define a random variable, an outcome, and an event

– LOS c: describe the probability of an event in terms of odds for and against the event

– LOS d: calculate and interpret conditional probabilities

– LOS e: demonstrate the application of the multiplication and addition rules for probability

– LOS f: compare and contrast dependent and independent events

– LOS g: calculate and interpret an unconditional probability using the total probability rule

– LOS i: explain the use of conditional expectation in investment applications

– LOS j: interpret a probability tree and demonstrate its application to investment problems

– LOS m: calculate and interpret an updated probability using Bayes’ formula

-LOS f. explain the key properties of the normal distribution

-LOS i. explain how to standardize a random variable

-LOS j. calculate and interpret probabilities using the standard normal distribution

-LOS p. describe Monte Carlo simulation

-LOS b: explain sampling error

-LOS 5d: explain the central limit theorem and its importance

-LOS e: calculate and interpret the standard error of the sample mean

-LOS f: identify and describe desirable properties of an estimator

-LOS 5g: contrast a point estimate and a confidence interval estimate of a population parameter

-LOS h: calculate and interpret a conidence interval for a population mean, given a normal distribution

with 1) a known population variance, 2) an unknown population variance, or 3) an unknown population variance and a large sample size

– LOS b: distinguish between one-tailed and two-tailed tests of hypotheses

-LOS e: explain and interpret the p-value as it relates to hypothesis testing

-LOS f: describe how to interpret the significance of a test in the context of multiple tests

-LOS m: explain tests of independence based on contingency table data

-LOS 7h: describe different functional forms of simple linear regressions