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StickyKurtosis

Kurtosis refers to measuring the degree to which a given distribution is more or less ‘peaked’ relative to the normal distribution. The concept of kurtosis is very useful in decision-making.  In this regard, we have 3 categories of distributions: Leptokurtic…

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Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Central Tendency Measures of central tendency are values that tend to occur at the center of a well-ordered data set. As such, some analysts call them measures of central location. The mean, the median, and the mode are all measures…

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Comparing GDP, National Income, Personal Income, and Personal Disposable Income

GDP GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product. It refers to the market value of all goods and services produced within an economy in a given period of time. Equivalently, GDP also refers to the total income earned by each household,…

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Nominal GDP, Real GDP and GDP Deflator

It is economically healthy to exclude the effect of general price changes when calculating the GDP. This is because higher (lower) income caused by inflation does not indicate a higher (lower) level of economic activity. Real GDP Economists describe real GDP…

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Value-of-Final-Output and Sum-of-Value-Added Methods of Calculating GDP

There are two approaches that are used in the calculation of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The first one is the income approach. This method measures GDP as a summation of all income generated in the economy in a given…

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Calculating GDP using Expenditure and Income Approaches

The aggregate output of an economy is the value of all the goods and services produced within a predetermined period of time. On the other hand, aggregate income refers to the economic value of all payments received by the suppliers…

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Market Structure within which a Firm Operates

Economists focus on the nature of competition and the pricing model in a particular market when describing a market structure. Since firms price their products based on the market structure, pricing, therefore, depends on competition. A market structure is often…

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Use and Limitation of Concentration Measures in Identifying Market Structure

Concentration Ratio The concentration ratio is the sum of market shares covered by the largest N firms. It is determined by finding the sum of sales value for the largest firms and dividing it by the total market sales. Therefore,…

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Pricing Strategy Under Each Market Structure

Pricing strategy can be described as the range of methods that the firms use to price their products and services. Companies and firms always set prices in accordance with the market structure in which they operate.

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Long-run Equilibrium Under Each Market Structure

A firm is said to be at equilibrium if the marginal cost (MC) is equal to marginal revenue (MR), and that is the profit-maximizing level of output. Perfectly Competitive Markets In the long run, if firms under perfectly competitive markets…

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Optimal Price and Output Levels Under Different Market Structures

An optimal price can be defined as the price at which a seller can make the highest profit possible; that is, the seller’s price is maximized. The rule of marginal output postulates that profit is maximized by producing an output,…

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