**Study Session 2**

**Reading 6 – The Time Value of Money**

– LOS 6a: interpret interest rates as required rates of return, discount rates, or opportunity costs

– LOS 6b: explain an interest rate as the sum of a real risk-free rate and premiums that compensate investors for bearing distinct types of risk

– LOS 6c: calculate and interpret the effective annual rate, given the stated annual interest rate and the frequency of compounding

– LOS 6d: solve time value of money problems for different frequencies of compounding

– LOS 6e: calculate and interpret the future value (FV) and present value (PV) of a single sum of money, an ordinary annuity, an annuity due, a perpetuity (PV only), and a series of unequal cash flows

– LOS 6f: demonstrate the use of a time line in modeling and solving time value of money problems

**Reading 7 – Discounted Cash Flow Applications**

– LOS 7a: calculate and interpret the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR) of an investment

– LOS 7a: Part 2

– LOS 7b: contrast the NPV rule to the IRR rule, and identify problems associated with the IRR rule

– LOS 7c: calculate and interpret a holding period return (total return)

– LOS 7d: calculate and compare the money-weighted and time-weighted rates of return of a portfolio and evaluate the performance of portfolios based on these measures

– LOS 7d: Part 2

– LOS 7e: calculate and interpret the bank discount yield, holding period yield, effective annual yield, and money market yield for US Treasury bills and other money market instruments

– LOS 7f: convert among holding period yields, money market yields, effective annual yields, and bond equivalent yields

**Reading 8 – Statistical Concepts and Market Returns**

– LOS 8a: distinguish between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, between a population and a sample, and among the types of measurement scales

– LOS 8b: define a parameter, a sample statistic, and a frequency distribution

– LOS 8c: calculate and interpret relative frequencies and cumulative relative frequencies, given a frequency distribution

– LOS 8d: describe the properties of a data set presented as a histogram or a frequency polygon

– LOS 8e: calculate and interpret measures of central tendency, including the population mean, sample mean, arithmetic mean, weighted average or mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, median, and mode

– LOS 8f: calculate and interpret quartiles, quintiles, deciles, and percentiles

– LOS 8g: calculate and interpret 1) a range and a mean absolute deviation and 2) the variance and standard deviation of a population and of a sample

– LOS 8h: calculate and interpret the proportion of observations falling within a specified number of standard deviations of the mean using Chebyshev’s inequality

– LOS 8i: calculate and interpret the coefficient of variation and the Sharpe ratio

– LOS 8j: explain skewness and the meaning of a positively or negatively skewed return distribution

– LOS 8k: describe the relative locations of the mean, median, and mode for a unimodal, nonsymmetrical distribution

– LOS 8l: explain measures of sample skewness and kurtosis

– LOS 8m: compare the use of arithmetic and geometric means when analyzing investment returns

**Reading 9 – Probability Concepts**

– LOS 9a: define a random variable, an outcome, an event, mutually exclusive events, and exhaustive events

– LOS 9b: state the two defining properties of probability and distinguish among empirical, subjective, and a priori probabilities

– LOS 9c: state the probability of an event in terms of odds for and against the event

– LOS 9d: distinguish between unconditional and conditional probabilities

– LOS 9e: explain the multiplication, addition, and total probability rules

– LOS 9f: calculate and interpret 1) the joint probability of two events, 2) the probability that at least one of two events will occur, given the probability of each and the joint probability of the two events, and 3) a joint probability of any number of independent events

– LOS 9g: distinguish between dependent and independent events

– LOS 9h: calculate and interpret an unconditional probability using the total probability rule

– LOS 9i: explain the use of conditional expectation in investment applications

– LOS 9j: explain the use of a tree diagram to represent an investment problem

– LOS 9k: calculate and interpret covariance and correlation

– LOS 9l: calculate and interpret the expected value, variance, and standard deviation of a random variable and of returns on a portfolio

– LOS 9m: calculate and interpret covariance given a joint probability function

– LOS 9n: calculate and interpret an updated probability using Bayes’ formula

– LOS 9o: identify the most appropriate method to solve a particular counting problem and solve counting problems using factorial, combination, and permutation concepts

**Study Session 3**

**Reading 10 – Common Probability Distributions**

– LOS 10a: define a probability distribution and distinguish between discrete and continuous random variables and their probability functions

– LOS 10b: describe the set of possible outcomes of a specified discrete random variable

– LOS 10c: interpret a cumulative distribution function

– LOS 10d: calculate and interpret probabilities for a random variable, given its cumulative distribution function

– LOS 10e: define a discrete uniform random variable, a Bernoulli random variable, and a binomial random variable

– LOS 10f: calculate and interpret probabilities given the discrete uniform and the binomial distribution functions

– LOS 10g: construct a binomial tree to describe stock price movement

– LOS 10h: calculate and interpret tracking error

– LOS 10i: define the continuous uniform distribution and calculate and interpret probabilities, given a continuous uniform distribution

– LOS 10j: explain the key properties of the normal distribution

– LOS 10k: distinguish between a univariate and a multivariate distribution and explain the role of correlation in the multivariate normal distribution

– LOS 10l: determine the probability that a normally distributed random variable lies inside a given interval

– LOS 10m: define the standard normal distribution, explain how to standardize a random variable, and calculate and interpret probabilities using the standard normal distribution

– LOS 10n: define shortfall risk, calculate the safety-first ratio, and select an optimal portfolio using Roy’s safety-first criterion

– LOS 10o: explain the relationship between normal and lognormal distributions and why the lognormal distribution is used to model asset prices

– LOS 10p: distinguish between discretely and continuously compounded rates of return and calculate and interpret a continuously compounded rate of return, given a specific holding period return

– LOS 10q: explain Monte Carlo simulation and describe its applications and limitations

– LOS 10r: compare Monte Carlo simulation and historical simulation

**Reading 11 – Sampling and Estimation**

– LOS 11a: define simple random sampling and a sampling distribution

– LOS 11b: explain sampling error

– LOS 11c: distinguish between simple random and stratified random sampling

– LOS 11d: distinguish between time-series and cross-sectional data

– LOS 11e: explain the central limit theorem and its importance

– LOS 11f: calculate and interpret the standard error of the sample mean

– LOS 11g: identify and describe desirable properties of an estimator

– LOS 11h: distinguish between a point estimate and a confidence interval estimate of a population parameter

– LOS 11i: describe properties of Student’s t-distribution and calculate and interpret its degrees of freedom

– LOS 11j: calculate and interpret a confidence interval for a population mean, given a normal distribution with 1) a known population variance, 2) an unknown population variance, or 3) an unknown variance and a large sample size

– LOS 11k: describe the issues regarding selection of the appropriate sample size, datamining bias, sample selection bias, survivorship bias, look-ahead bias, and timeperiod bias

**Reading 12 – Hypothesis Testing**

– LOS 12a: define a hypothesis, describe the steps of hypothesis testing, and describe and interpret the choice of the null and alternative hypotheses

– LOS 12b: distinguish between one-tailed and two-tailed tests of hypotheses

– LOS 12c: explain a test statistic, Type I and Type II errors, a significance level, and how significance levels are used in hypothesis testing

– LOS 12d: explain a decision rule, the power of a test, and the relation between confidence intervals and hypothesis tests

– LOS 12e: distinguish between a statistical result and an economically meaningful result

– LOS 12f: explain and interpret the p-value as it relates to hypothesis testing

– LOS 12g: identify the appropriate test statistic and interpret the results for a hypothesis test concerning the population mean of both large and small samples when the population is normally or approximately normally distributed and the variance is 1) known or 2) unknown

– LOS 12h: identify the appropriate test statistic and interpret the results for a hypothesis test concerning the equality of the population means of two at least approximately normally distributed populations, based on independent random samples with 1) equal or 2) unequal assumed variances

– LOS 12i: identify the appropriate test statistic and interpret the results for a hypothesis test concerning the mean difference of two normally distributed populations

– LOS 12j: identify the appropriate test statistic and interpret the results for a hypothesis test concerning 1) the variance of a normally distributed population, and 2) the equality of the variances of two normally distributed populations based on two independent random samples

– LOS 12k: distinguish between parametric and nonparametric tests and describe situations in which the use of nonparametric tests may be appropriate

**Reading 13 – Technical Analysis**

– LOS 13a: explain principles of technical analysis, its applications, and its underlying assumptions

– LOS 13b: describe the construction of different types of technical analysis charts and interpret them

– LOS 13c: explain uses of trend, support, resistance lines, and change in polarity

– LOS 13d: describe common chart patterns

– LOS 13e: describe common technical analysis indicators (price-based, momentum oscillators, sentiment, and flow of funds)

– LOS 13f: explain how technical analysts use cycles

– LOS 13g: describe the key tenets of Elliott Wave Theory and the importance of Fibonacci numbers

– LOS 13h: describe intermarket analysis as it relates to technical analysis and asset allocation