Learning Sessions – Fixed Income

Study Session 15

Reading 51 – Fixed-Income Securities: Defining Elements

LOS 51a: describe basic features of a fixed-income security
LOS 51b: describe content of a bond indenture
LOS 51c: compare affirmative and negative covenants and identify examples of each
LOS 51d: describe how legal, regulatory, and tax considerations affect the issuance and trading of fixed-income securities
LOS 51e: describe how cash flows of fixed-income securities are structured
LOS 51f: describe contingency provisions affecting the timing and/or nature of cash flows of fixed-income securities and identify whether such provisions benefit the borrower or the lender
LOS 51x: describe different types of bonds and their specific features

Reading 52 – Fixed-Income Markets: Issuance, Trading and Funding

LOS 52a: describe classifications of global fixed-income markets
LOS 52b: describe the use of interbank offered rates as reference rates in floating-rate debt
LOS 52c: describe mechanisms available for issuing bonds in primary markets
LOS 52d: describe secondary markets for bonds
LOS 52e: describe securities issued by sovereign governments
LOS 52f: describe securities issued by non-sovereign governments, quasi-government entities, and supranational agencies
LOS 52g: describe types of debt issued by corporations
LOS 52h: describe short-term funding alternatives available to banks
LOS 52i: describe repurchase agreements and the risks associated with them

Reading 53 – Introduction to Fixed-Income Valuation

LOS 53a: calculate a bond’s price given a market discount rate
LOS 53b: identify the relationships among a bond’s price, coupon rate, maturity, and market discount rate (yield-to-maturity)
LOS 53c: define spot rates and calculate the price of a bond using spot rates
LOS 53d: describe and calculate the flat price, accrued interest, and the full price of a bond
LOS 53e: describe matrix pricing
LOS 53f: calculate and interpret yield measures for fixed-rate bonds, floating-rate notes, and money market instruments
LOS 53g: define and compare the spot curve, yield curve on coupon bonds, par curve, and forward curve
LOS 53h: define forward rates and calculate spot rates from forward rates, forward rates from spot rates, and the price of a bond using forward rates

Reading 54 – Introduction to Asset-Backed Securities

LOS 54a: explain benefits of securitization for economies and financial markets
LOS 54b: describe securitization, including the parties involved in the process and the roles they play
LOS 54c: describe typical structures of securitizations, including credit tranching and time tranching
LOS 54d: describe types and characteristics of residential mortgage loans that are typically securitized
LOS 54e: describe types and characteristics of residential mortgage-backed securities, including mortgage pass-through securities and collateralized mortgage obligations, and explain the cash flows and risks for each type
LOS 54f: define prepayment risk and describe the prepayment risk of mortgage-backed securities
LOS 54g: describe characteristics and risks of commercial mortgage-backed securities
LOS 54h: describe types and characteristics of non-mortgage asset-backed securities, including the cash flows and risks of each type
LOS 54i: describe collateralized debt obligations, including their cash flows and risks

Study Session 16

Reading 55 – Understanding Fixed-Income Risk and Return

LOS 55a: calculate and interpret the sources of return from investing in a fixed-rate bond
LOS 55b: define, calculate, and interpret Macaulay, modified, and effective durations
LOS 55c: explain why effective duration is the most appropriate measure of interest rate risk for bonds with embedded options
LOS 55d: define key rate duration and describe the use of key rate durations in measuring the sensitivity of bonds to changes in the shape of the benchmark yield curve
LOS 55e: explain how a bond’s maturity, coupon, and yield level affect its interest rate risk
LOS 55f: calculate the duration of a portfolio and explain the limitations of portfolio duration
LOS 55g: calculate and interpret the money duration of a bond and price value of a basis point (PVBP)
LOS 55h: calculate and interpret approximate convexity and distinguish between approximate and effective convexity
LOS 55i: estimate the percentage price change of a bond for a specified change in yield, given the bond’s approximate duration and convexity
LOS 55j: describe how the term structure of yield volatility affects the interest rate risk of a bond
LOS 55k: describe the relationships among a bond’s holding period return, its duration, and the investment horizon
LOS 55l: explain how changes in credit spread and liquidity affect yield-to-maturity of a bond and how duration and convexity can be used to estimate the price effect of the changes

Reading 56 – Fundamentals of Credit Analysis

LOS 56a: describe credit risk and credit-related risks affecting corporate bonds
LOS 56b: describe default probability and loss severity as components of credit risk
LOS 56c: describe seniority rankings of corporate debt and explain the potential violation of the priority of claims in a bankruptcy proceeding
LOS 56d: distinguish between corporate issuer credit ratings and issue credit ratings and describe the rating agency practice of “notching”
LOS 56e: explain risks in relying on ratings from credit rating agencies
LOS 56f: explain the four Cs (Capacity, Collateral, Covenants, and Character) of traditional credit analysis
LOS 56g: calculate and interpret financial ratios used in credit analysis
LOS 56h: evaluate the credit quality of a corporate bond issuer and a bond of that issuer, given key financial ratios of the issuer and the industry
LOS 56i: describe factors that influence the level and volatility of yield spreads
LOS 56j: explain special considerations when evaluating the credit of high yield, sovereign, and non-sovereign government debt issuers and issues

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