**Study Session 17**

**Reading 57 – Derivative Markets and Instruments**

– LOS 57a: define a derivative and distinguish between exchange-traded and over-the-counter derivatives

– LOS 57b: contrast forward commitments with contingent claims

– LOS 57c: define forward contracts, futures contracts, options (calls and puts), swaps, and credit derivatives and compare their basic characteristics

– LOS 57d: describe purposes of, and controversies related to derivative markets

– LOS 57e: explain arbitrage and the role it plays in determining prices and promoting market efficiency

**Reading 58 – Basics of Derivative Pricing and Valuation**

– LOS 58a: explain how the concepts of arbitrage, replication, and risk neutrality are used in pricing derivatives

– LOS 58b: distinguish between value and price of forward and futures contracts

– LOS 58c: explain how the value and price of a forward contract are determined at expiration, during the life of the contract, and at initiation

– LOS 58d: describe monetary and nonmonetary benefits and costs associated with holding the underlying asset and explain how they affect the value and price of a forward contract

– LOS 58e: define a forward rate agreement and describe its uses

– LOS 58f: explain why forward and futures prices differ

– LOS 58g: explain how swap contracts are similar to but different from a series of forward contracts

– LOS 58h: distinguish between the value and price of swaps

– LOS 58i: explain how the value of a European option is determined at expiration

– LOS 58j: explain the exercise value, time value, and moneyness of an option

– LOS 58k: identify the factors that determine the value of an option and explain how each factor affects the value of an option

– LOS 58l: explain put–call parity for European options

– LOS 58m: explain put–call–forward parity for European options

– LOS 58n: explain how the value of an option is determined using a one-period binomial model

– LOS 58o: explain under which circumstances the values of European and American options differ

**Reading 59 – Risk Management Applications of Option Strategies**

– LOS 59a: determine the value at expiration, the profit, maximum profit, maximum loss, breakeven underlying price at expiration, and payoff graph of the strategies of buying and selling calls and puts and determine the potential outcomes for investors using these strategies

– LOS 59b: determine the value at expiration, profit, maximum profit, maximum loss, breakeven underlying price at expiration, and payoff graph of a covered call strategy and a protective put strategy, and explain the risk management application of each strategy