GDP GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product. It refers to the market value of all goods and services produced within an economy in a given period of time. Equivalently, GDP also refers to the total income earned by each household,…

It is economically healthy to exclude the effect of general price changes when calculating the GDP because higher (lower) income caused by inflation does not indicate a higher (lower) level of economic activity. Real GDP Economists describe real GDP as what would…

In calculating the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), there are two different approaches used. The first one is the income approach. This method measures GDP as a summation of all income generated in the economy in that year. The income includes…

Tracking error refers to the difference in returns between a portfolio (index fund) and a benchmark (target index) against which its performance is evaluated. In other words, it is the difference between the returns on an index fund and the…

A binomial tree is used to predict stock price movements assuming there are two possible outcomes, each of which has a known probability of occurrence.

In finance, probability distributions have different shapes. As such, we describe a random variable based on the shape of the underlying distribution.

A cumulative distribution offers a convenient tool for determining probabilities for a given random variable. As you will recall from a previous learning outcome statement, a cumulative distribution function, F(x), gives the probability that the random variable X is less…

We can calculate and interpret probabilities of random variables that assume either the uniform distribution or the binomial distribution:

Standard VII – Responsibilities as a CFA Institute Member or CFA Candidate Standard VII outlines the responsibilities that CFA members or Candidates should have regarding their profession and the CFA Institute. Standard VII(A) – Guidance Standard VII(A) – Guidance designates…

Standard VI(C) – Referral Fees requires CFA members to report to employers and clients any sums received from or paid to recommendations of products or services. Compliance Appropriate disclosure means communicating before an investment professional enters into a contract with a client or a…