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# Compare Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross National Product (GNP)

Gross domestic product (GDP) measures the market value of goods and services from production factors such as labor and capital in a country within a given period of time. On the other hand, the market value of all final goods produced by factors of production supplied by individuals in a country is measured by gross national product (GNP).

Alternatively, GDP can be seen as the value of all goods and services produced by all economic agents in a country within a period of time without excluding foreign economic activities. GNP measures the market value of all production activities carried out strictly by the citizens of a country both within and outside the country, within a fiscal period which could be yearly or quarterly.

## Comparing the GDP and GNP of a State

Income generated within a state is calculated by GNP, and it considers income from foreign sources. However, GDP strictly measures income generated within a country. As such, GNP is a more accurate measure of a state’s income than GDP. Although GNP uses GDP as a starting point, it can be lower or higher than the GDP itself.

At an international level, GNP tracks the progress of the economy. GDP measures economic growth to weigh the strength of the domestic economy of a country.

Like GDP, GNP constitutes depreciation and indirect taxes in the calculation of income but does not include the services consumed. The prices of finished products include the value of these services.

The formula of GDP or GNP per capita is dividing the total GDP or GNP by the total population of the country.

GNP is based on the location of ownership, whereas GDP is based on the geographical area of production. Therefore GDP, unlike GNP, takes the living standards of people in the state into consideration.

The income method, expenditure method, and output method are used to measure GDP. To get the GNP of a nation, simply take GDP and add the net property income from foreigners.

We can summarize the above statements using the table below:

$$\begin{array}{c|c} \textbf{Gross Domestic Product (GDP)} & \textbf{Gross National Product (GNP)} \\ \hline \begin{array}{c} \text{The market value of goods and services in a} \\ \text{country during a specified period of time} \end{array} & \begin{array}{c} \text{The market value of all production activities in a} \\ \text{country during a specified period of time.} \end{array} \\ \hline \text{Measures only income within a country} & \text{Includes income from foreign sources} \\ \hline \text{Based on the geographic areas of production} & \text{ Based on the location of ownership} \\ \hline \text{} & \text{ GDP + Net overseas property income} \\ \end{array}$$

### Question

Which of the following statements is the most accurate regarding both GDP and GNP? They both:

1. are based on the location of ownership.
2. consider income generated from foreign sources.
3. measure depreciation and indirect taxes in the calculation of income.

Solution

Both GDP and GNP use depreciation and indirect taxes in the calculation of income.

A is incorrect. GNP is based on the location of ownership whereas GDP is based on the geographical area of production.

B is incorrect. GDP does not consider income generated from foreign sources.

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